Abraham - Believing One God

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The scriptures were founded from Abraham until the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem. Therefore, would Abram be the beginning of God? Of course, as monotheism has its own origins outside Judaism, Abram also has its own origins outside Mesopotamia [ 1] . Abraham had a central role in the nascent history of the people of Israel.

First of all, Abram, later called Abraham, is an essential biblical figure. On the one hand, according to the Old Testament, he was the first man to believe in only one god. Therefore, would he be the precursor of monotheism? And on the other hand, he is considered by the three great monotheistic religions to be with Isaac, Jacob, and his twelve sons, symbolizing the 12 tributes of Israel, one of the three most famous Patriarchs. In addition, let us mention the exegete Albert de Pury, his assistance could shed light on the research.

Difficult translation. According to the Scriptures, the Lord asked Abram to leave his birthplace, the city of Ur, (present-day Iraq), to go to Canaan [2] , (Genesis 12. 1-3). Thus, Abram left with his wife "Sarai", his nephew "Lot", and his servants. In Canaan they became nomads.

 

Belief in one God

Could there be a monotheism prior to Abraham? One would be tempted to say so. Ahura-Mazda [1] is recognized as the one and only God among the gods. The Psalm of Asaph is revealing, (chap. 5): "The one god". There is also the god Marduk, the Babylonian god, (chap. 8): “Marduk a unique god! Before believing, there would be tracks to follow.

Difficult translation. In fact, the Judaic or Biblical [2] monotheism is not 4000 years old in the plus, 2,600 years, including the current epoch, that is, the 2,000 years that separate from the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. Moreover, and because of their willful ignorance, despite their erudition, the fathers of the Christian or Catholic Church wanted to associate the God of Israel with the God of Christians. For the fathers it was the same god. The only God. It is a mistake. Remember, Jesus defined "God" as the "Father in heaven".

Also, contrary to popular belief, Judaic monotheism is absolutely not the basis of monotheism, Christian, and Muslim. The God of the Jews, or Yhwh, is not "God", the Father, of Christian monotheism. Neither is he the "Allah" of Muslim monotheism. The recent Jewish monotheism is developed with the Torah and the Talmud, both imbued with a Pharisee influence! Let us also remember that 2,600 years BC, the Hebrew people, then the Jews, were polytheistic, and therefore inclined to monolatry.

In conclusion, monotheism predates not only Abraham, and Ahura-Mazda, and also Pharaoh Akhenaten, (Amenhotep IV), the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt.

[1] Ahura-Mazda, would have generated Mithra, the god of the sun, the moon, and the stars. - The religion of Mithras, (chap. 19) -

[2] “Strict monotheism, to which the second Isaiah testifies, recognized theologically in the Torah, is at the root biblical aniconism. Indeed, once the prophet denounces the artisanal reality of fabricated divinities, it becomes logical to assert the impossibility of representing the divine. Monotheism constitutes the starting point of the prohibition of the image and at the same time its theological legitimation. » © Dany Nocquet, SBEV / Éd. du Cerf, Cahier Évangile n ° 154 (December 2010), “The One God and the Others - Outline of the Religious Evolution of Ancient Israel”, p. 33.

 

Abram and the concept of one God

The concept of the one god assimilated to Abram served as the basis for the three great monotheistic religions. It was on this basis that the exoteric religion of Hebrew origin first founded its mysticism. And, thereafter, more decisively with Moses and the Tables of the Law. But, the revelation extracted from its concept of Hebrew origin could have had a completely different reality. Why not in Egypt?

Against all advice, there would be good reasons to think and say: monotheism proceeding from a spiritual search, and not from a law, which implies believing in a single god, at the risk of incurring a sentence, as The “Torah” stipulates it, had been expressed and signified in ancient times through various Egyptian cults. One of them, quite revealing, already expressed the idea or the ternary contained in "The Primordial Unity".

 

Fourth Dynasty Egypt

The Fourth Dynasty of Egypt worshiped "Osiris Isis and Horus". The same Principle will subsequently be found in the Holy Trinity vivified with the Messiah, the “Word made Flesh”. However, many exegetes, writers and others passionate about the history of religions agree in thinking and saying that monotheism belongs to the 17th Dynasty of Egypt. According to scholars, the first monotheism would see the light of day with Akhenaten [1] , (ci below). Of course, Akhenaten turned the tide of Egyptian history upside down, but he did not necessarily participate in its development in the best possible way. Moreover, Akhenaten's monotheism was not directly from the divine, but from solar inspiration. But maybe it was also a projection into the future?

Already, was it not an elevation of the thought tending to join the sun, The Eternal? Jesus? We cannot attest to this. But, we don't think so.

[1] Religion: From its origins to the 3rd millennium: "It was, quite precisely, around the month of November 1343 BC. J.C., that one could glimpse the first monotheistic experience in the history of mankind. So nearly 3,360 years ago, the young king Amenhotep IV, less than 15 years old and then residing in Thebes, undertook an unprecedented religious reform during the transition from year III to year IV of his reign. According to: Jean-François Dortier, Laurent Testot. Editions Sciences Humaines, 2017.

 

The first covenant, Genesis 12. 1-:

"1The Lord said unto Abram, Depart out of thy land, and out of thy fatherland, and out of thy father's house, into the land which I will show thee. … 2I will make you a great nation, and I will bless you; I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing. 3I will bless those who bless you, and those who curse you I will curse; and all the families of the earth will be blessed in you. 4He departed, as the Lord commanded him, and Lot went with him. He was seventy-five years old when he left Haran ... "

The Lord also promises him that his descendants will possess Canaan, without any doubt. However, as regards the sentence, and the meaning of the verb "to possess", we have no idea of all the possible translations, presenting a different context. For example, some agree that only "Yhwh" remains the owner of the land of Canaan. In short, we do not have the vocation of "Thomas Römer [3]" to discuss it .

 

Abram's name is changing

In the end, circumcision would be in a way the sign of a renewal, marking a renewal of the covenant made in the past between the Lord and Noah.[4]. A cette occasion également son nom devient « Abraham », et le nom de Saraï devient « Sarah ».

Very difficult translation. A second covenant, including name changes and circumcision may be considered, rather than a renewal of the first covenant, Genesis 12. 1-3. Why ? because, if the second covenant concerned a renewal or a strengthening of the first covenant, it would have been similar - now, the second covenant different from the first does not refer to the pact established between the Lord and Noah, but concerns, for the continuation, a direct alliance between the Eternal and Abram -. Now, for a great nation to flow from this Patriarch according to the promises of the Lord, he needed offspring. However, Sarai, his wife could not give birth. But, among the servants, there was an Egyptian maid named "Hagar". Just to clarify, he was 86 years old when he made Hagar pregnant (Genesis 16 1-3).

 

Why did Abraham go to his maid Hagar?

Because on the one hand, he was encouraged by his wife Sarai, and on the other hand, because Hebrew law allowed it [5] , since Sarai, his wife, was sterile.

When she was pregnant, Hagar looked contemptuously at her mistress, Genesis 16. 6-8:

“… 6So he answered Sarai, Behold, thy handmaid is in thy hand; do unto her as it pleases you. So Sarai mistreated her; and Hagar fled from her. 7The angel of the LORD found her by a spring of water in the wilderness, by the spring which is on the way to Shur. 8He said, Hagar, Sarai's maid, whence comest thou, and whither wilt thou go? She replied: I am running away from Sarai, my mistress ... "

Genesis 16. 9-11: "... 9The angel of the LORD spake unto her thus, Return unto thy mistress, and humble thyself under her hand. 10The angel of the LORD promised him, I will multiply your seed, and they shall be so many that they cannot be counted. 11The angel of the LORD said unto her, Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, and shalt call his name Ishmael; for the Lord has heard you in your affliction ... "

 

Second pact or alliance

Still according to the biblical version, here is the second covenant, (different from the first), established between The Eternal [6] and Abram: Genesis 17. 4-11: "… 4-11: 4 "As for Me, behold, My covenant is with you, and you shall be ga father of 2many nations. 5 No longer shall hyour name be called 3Abram, but your name shall be 4Abraham; ifor I have made you a father of 5many nations. 6 I will make you exceedingly fruitful; and I will make jnations of you, and kkings shall come from you. 7 And I will lestablish My covenant between Me and you and your descendants after you in their generations, for an everlasting covenant, mto be God to you and nyour descendants after you. 8 Also oI give to you and your descendants after you the land pin 6which you are a stranger, all the land of Canaan, as an everlasting possession; and qI will be their God.” 9 And God said to Abraham: “As for you, ryou shall keep My covenant, you and your descendants after you throughout their generations. 10 This is My covenant which you shall keep, between Me and you and your descendants after you: sEvery male child among you shall be circumcised; 11 and you shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskins, and it shall be ta sign of the covenant between Me and you.".

From a 100-year-old man and a 90-year-old barren woman, could a child have been born?

Jerusalem Bible, Genesis 21: “ 1 Yahweh visited Sarah as he had promised and did for her as he had promised. 2 Sarah conceived and bore a son to her husband, who was already old, at the time that God had appointed. 3 To the son born to him, through Sarah, Abraham gave the name of Isaac ... "

 

Exegete Albert de Pury

Concerning Abraham and his descendants, the exegetic theologian “Albert de Pury” provides a most enriching and even more surprising complement: “I think that the priestly author, this great supporter of Cyrus, chose this character. - Abraham - to build a kind of genealogy, which is not uniquely Jewish or uniquely Israelite. It is above all a regional genealogy where he establishes the ties of kinship there, between Ishmael and Isaac, the ancestor of the Jews, according to him, and Ishmael, the ancestor of all these Arab groups, who at this time, precisely come settle in southern Palestine ”.

 

The Eternal - Old Testament

The Bible testifies that Abram would be a descendant of Noah, Jacob, etc. But, this is not everyone's opinion. Now, to get to the point, if we refer to Yhwh, the God of the Old Testament, according to the Bible, Abram would indeed be the starting point, since he is considered by the three great monotheistic religions as being the first man to believe in only one God. It is also the one who submits to Him, the first time by leaving his native city, and a second time, because of the sacrifice of Isaac requested by "The Lord".

Now, if we try to locate the character geographically and historically, he would have left Ur his hometown in Mesopotamia [7] , shortly before the end of the Sumerian Empire, around 1890 BCE [8 ] . According to the Hebrew Scriptures, we now know approximately how. As to the why, the Lord manifested Himself to him. We will learn later ... But first, the following question might be useful.

Wouldn't the God of the Old Testament reveal one aspect alone, that of believing, at the expense of the truth about GOD?

 

Yahvé

Difficult translation. In the Bible, reductively or according to a narrow-mindedness common to more than one individual, one might wonder. Is the Yhwh of the Old Testament sectarian? He seems to have set his sights on the people of Israel. He elected him. He promoted her to a high rank. And, he promised him the land of Canaan. From this perspective, wouldn't Yahweh seem a little exclusive, foreign, and in the likeness of his leaders? Would the scriptures tell us about the real nature of God? Actually, we have no idea what God is? Except later with the Word made flesh? Apart from received ideas, did the coming of Jesus Christ not arouse as much admiration as it did hatred?

But, at the risk of being misunderstood? Christ, would he not indirectly strengthened beliefs even going against him? Explanation:

 

Time of Jesus Christ

In Jesus' time, beliefs were imprecise and very diverse. Also, the idealization of a particular deity was vague or almost nonexistent. The life-giving Light was lacking emanating from a pure Spirit on a higher plane or a heavenly and divine plane.

Incontestablement, il manquait aussi un intermédiaire, un être à part, prédisposé à recevoir la Lumière, pour diffuser le  » Pur Esprit  » ou le « Saint Esprit » sur un plan physique et matériel et pour le bien de tous.

Following Jesus 'teaching, moral and spiritual teaching on the Resurrection, is the idea of divinity still as vague as it was in Jesus' time? As far as preventing one from conceiving of a reality other than his own on a non-terrestrial plane? We will have the opportunity to complete these topics.

 

The idea of one God

For now, let's focus on the one God of the Old Testament. What is the origin of Yahweh?

Did the idea of the unique masculine Divinity arise spontaneously from a current of Faith? Of an ideology that has been reworked many times and with misogynistic tendencies? Many revisions would be required.

The book GOD OF ORIGIN is responsible for part of answering these questions. So let's try to illuminate the horizon, beyond the waterline, to borrow the expression of "Hubert Reeves". Let us learn that as a starting point, with reference to the Bible, the idea of a divine and unique being concerns the exoteric religion of Hebrew origin. Following Judaism, the feminine disappears. Only a single, male, celibate, powerful Divinity, and not tolerating any other deity appears. Thus was born the unique GOD Yahweh. The GOD of Israel.

Later and for a different reason, Christ was going to strengthen the idea… However, going back through the millennia we find the same Yahweh with his companion Asherah . And more recently, around the sixth century - the time of the Exile, until the Christian era - we discover a pre-monotheism in Babylon and a divinity superior to all the others. A Masculine Divinity, oh so inspiring ...

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[1] "Albert Pury", Swiss exegete and biblical scholar: “Abraham appears to have deep roots in southern Palestine, and in particular in the Hebron area. In my opinion, Abraham would have nothing to do with Mesopotamia. Only the pure and simple scholarly invention of the priestly author made Abraham leave Ur in Chaldea. Then there is the passage through Aram, in Northern Mesopotamia, present-day Ur, Southern Turkey on the Euphrates, etc. "

[2] “The land of Canaan includes what we today call the Palestinian territories, the state of 'Israel, western Jordan, Lebanon and western Syria. This place is not populated by Semites which is explained, in accordance with the biblical vision of the origin of man, from the fact that its inhabitants are the descendants of a brother of Shem named Cham who had Canaan as his son. . - The name has an apostrophe between the second and third syllable. - So it is the name of this grandson of Noah that gives the name of this region. Source: Mediapart.fr

[3] Difficult translation. The idea is also found in "Lv 25" where it is said that Yhwh is the true owner of the land of Canaan, and the Israelites have only one statute of hosts and residents in this country: Canaan is at me, because you are immigrants with me - guerim - and as inhabitants (v. 23). In this case we can say that the two expressions, (v. 8), complement each other: those to whom the place is given in permanent usufruct, however, remain strangers there, since the real owner is Yhwh. So what is permanent for Abraham and his descendants is the right to enjoy Canaan enjoyed by all of his descendants who live there.

[4] Genesis 9, 1-10, 32: 9 12: And God spoke: "This is the sign of the pact which I establish between me and you, and all living creatures who are with you, for generations to always: 13 I have placed my bow in the cloud, and it will serve as a sign of the covenant between me and the earth. 14 When I gather the clouds above the earth, the bow will appear in the cloud; 15 and I will remember my promise between me and you, and all living creatures of all flesh, and the waters will no longer become a flood to destroy all flesh. 16 The bow will be in the clouds; and I will look at him, to remember the everlasting covenant between God and all living beings, of all flesh that is on the earth. 17 And God said unto Noah, This is the sign which I establish between me and all flesh which is on the earth. "

16.2 A woman's sterility was often considered a divine punishment (25.21; Lev 20.20; Jer 22.30; Ps 127.3-4). The custom (recorded in the code of Hammurabi, Babylonian king of the 2nd millennium BC) allowed the sterile woman to choose a wife for her husband and to consider the children that this one would give to her as being her own. Source: biblica.com

[6] The Jerusalem Bible, Genesis 17. 1-27: « 1 Lorsqu’Abram eut atteint quatre-vingt-dix-neuf ans, Yahvé lui apparut et lui révéla : « I am El Shaddaï, walk in my presence and be perfect… ”; "26 That same day Abraham and his son Ishmael were circumcised, 27 and all the men of his house, children of the house or acquired from a stranger for money, (slave), were circumcised with him. " – El Shaddaï: El (All powerful).

[7] The city of Ur, from which Abram went, is not strictly speaking, a city in Mesopotamia, but rather a name given to a place. According to the versions of the Bible, for example, King James Version: "7The Lord him spoke again: I am the Lord, who brought you out of Ur in Chaldea, to give you possession of this land. So this is Canaan or the Promised Land.

[8] Author's note: For the same event and the same character, such as "Abraham", the dates may be different. Why ? Because we refer to both biblical chronology, and non-biblical chronology, thanks to the work of historians and scholars of the Bible. Like “Thomas Römer”; "Albert Pury". And, others ... Regarding the (supposed) departure of Abram, Ur, 1890 is the commonly accepted date.

 

The epic of Gilgamesh